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UPSC Key—15 September, 2023: Sanatan Dharma, Hindi Diwas and Chief Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners Bill, 2023

Important topics and their relevance in UPSC CSE exam for September 15, 2023. If you missed the September 14, 2023 UPSC CSE exam key from the Indian Express, read it here

FRONT PAGE

Opposition wants to crush Sanatan, attack us across country, need to stop them: PM

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: History of India and Indian National Movement

Mains Examination: General Studies I: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story– In his first public remarks on the Sanatan Dharma row, Prime Minister Narendra Modi Thursday accused the Opposition INDIA alliance of seeking to destroy it, and urged people to be vigilant against “attacks on us across the country”.

• What does Sanatan Dharma mean?

• Etymology and roots of Sanatan Dharma-Know in details

• Why Sanatan Dharma is in news these days?

• For Your Information-Sanatan Dharma is a Sanskrit term that can be translated variously as “eternal religion” or “eternal law”, “unshakeable, venerable order”, or “ancient and continuing guideline”. Mythologist and author Devdutt Pattanaik posted on X, formerly Twitter, that the word “sanatan”, meaning eternal, does not appear in the Vedas.“The word sanatan started being used in the Bhagavad Gita, and refers to knowledge of the soul, which is eternal,” Pattanaik said in a video he posted. “One can say that Sanatan Dharma refers to eternal religions which believe in soul and rebirth,” he said.In his book, ‘Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices’ (1994), Julius J Lipner, Emeritus Professor of Hinduism and the Comparative Study of Religion at the University of Cambridge, wrote that the term ‘Sanatan Dharma’ was used in the Gita by Arjuna, when he told Krishna that “when the clan is vitiated, the sanatan-dharmas of the clan are destroyed”.Lipner noted that a similar term was used by Draupadi when the onlookers did not speak up on her behalf.Although the term is most commonly associated with Hinduism, it is also used by Jains and Buddhists because these religions also believe in rebirth. “It is not used for religions that believe in one life, that is Judaism, Christianity and Islam, which come from the Middle East,” Pattanaik said.It is only more recently, particularly since the late 19th century, that Sanatan Dharma has been used to signify Hinduism as a religion, distinct from other religions. It is used to evoke a certain homogeneity in Hinduism, without specifying how exactly that homogeneity is constituted.Lipner noted: “Many Hindus call themselves Sanatanists, that is, those who follow the eternal dharma. But…it is far from clear what this eternal dharma is.”He wrote, “I have yet to discover a Hindu sanatana-dharma in the sense of some universally recognised philosophy.” This, Lipner said, was not possible, because it presupposes that Hinduism is a monolithic tradition in which there is agreement about a static or universal doctrine.

• When did Sanatan dharma gain historical significance?

• What is the philosophy of Sanatan Dharma?

• Does Sanatan belong to Schools of Indian Philosophy?

• Have you heard of Vaishesika, Nyaya, Samkhya, Yoga, Mimansa and Vedanta?

• Schools of Indian Philosophy-What exactly you know about this?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍The concept of Sanatan Dharma: its roots and the historical context of its use

Bill downgrades EC to status of Cabinet Secy from that of SC Judge

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Ahead of the special session of Parliament next week, there is disquiet in a section of the establishment, including the Election Commission (EC), over a provision in a Bill — listed for discussion and passage — that seeks to downgrade the service conditions of the three election commissioners and, consequently, threatens to erode their authority.

• The Chief Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) Bill, 2023-Know key provisions of the bill

• Why Chief Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) Bill, 2023 is in news these days?

• “There is allegation that the proposed bill seeks to downgrade the service conditions of the three election commissioners and, consequently, threatens to erode their authority”-how far you agree?

• “Over the past few years, the EC’s credibility is increasingly being called into question, with allegations of bias in the scheduling of elections and arbitrary deletion of names of registered voters, ignoring blatant violations of the model code”-Comment

• Okay, now answer that who appoints Chief Election Commissioner of India?

• And how Chief Election Commissioner of India and other Election Commissioners are appointed?

• Election Commission of India and Article 324 of the Constitution-Know in detail

• Do You Know- As of now, the CEC and ECs are appointed by the government as per Article 324(2) of the Constitution which states: “The Election Commission shall consist of the Chief Election Commissioner and such number of other Election Commissioners, if any, as the President may from time to time fix and the appointment of the Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners shall, subject to the provisions of any law made in that behalf by Parliament, be made by the President”.

• The independent and impartial functioning of the Election Commission-How it is ensured?

• Election Commission of India- Powers and Functions

• Chief Election Commissioner and the two other Election Commissioners have equal powers-True or False?

• In case of difference of opinion amongst the Chief election commissioner and/or two other election commissioners, the matter is decided by the Supreme Court of India-Right or Wrong?

• Wait, before answering the above question, In March 2023, the Supreme Court stepped in to check what it called the “pernicious effects of the exclusive power being vested with the Executive to make appointment to the Election Commission” and ordered something-can you recall that?

• Quick Recall-In March 2023, the Supreme Court stepped in to check what it called the “pernicious effects of the exclusive power being vested with the Executive to make appointment to the Election Commission” and ordered that the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and Election Commissioners (ECs) shall be appointed on the advice of a committee comprising the Prime Minister, Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha and Chief Justice of India. Ruling on petitions seeking an independent mechanism to appoint the CEC and ECs, a five-judge Constitution Bench presided by Justice K M Joseph said where no Leader of Opposition is available, the committee will include the leader of the largest Opposition party in Lok Sabha in terms of numerical strength.

• So what will change if the proposed bill is passed?

• What experts and scholars are saying about the Chief Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) Bill, 2023?

• For Your Information-According to SY Quraishi, the Bill now proposed by the Union government, seeks to replace the CJI with a Cabinet Minister nominated by the Prime Minister. However, it proposes a welcome addition — a search committee, headed by the Cabinet Secretary, with two other members not below the rank of secretary to the government, to prepare a panel of five members for the consideration of the Selection Committee. Another positive feature of the Bill is that the CEC and other ECs will be appointed from “amongst persons who are holding or have held a post equivalent to the rank of secretary and shall be persons of integrity, who have knowledge of and experience in the management and conduct of elections”. Earlier, there was no rule prescribing the qualifications for appointment to the posts, which was a major matter of concern with the risk of appointment from some other catchment area.

• “Over the past few years, the EC’s credibility is increasingly being called into question, with allegations of bias in the scheduling of elections and arbitrary deletion of names of registered voters, ignoring blatant violations of the model code”-Comment

• Do You Know-Parliament has the power to nullify the effect of a Court ruling by addressing the concerns flagged in the judgement. The law cannot simply be contradictory to the ruling.In this case, the arrangement prescribed by the Supreme Court was specifically because the Court noted that there was a “legislative vacuum.” Filling that vacuum is well within the purview of the Parliament. However, the idea of an independent body that conducts elections permeates through the judgement. The Court repeatedly stated that to be the objective of the framers of the Constitution. The composition of the Selection Committee in the Bill raises questions on whether the process is now independent or still rigged in favour of the Executive. With the PM and a Cabinet Minster nominated by the PM in the three-member panel, the LoP is outvoted even before the process begins.

• “One extremely important provision of the Bill is that it seeks to protect the two Election Commissioners fromremoval, bringing them on par with the CEC”-How was the things before?

• What are the criticisms with the recent proposed Bill?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍The EC’s guardrails

📍The CEC-ECs Bill, and how it overturns the effect of an SC order

📍THE CHIEF ELECTION COMMISSIONER AND OTHER ELECTION COMMISSIONERS (APPOINTMENT, CONDITIONS OF SERVICE AND TERM OF OFFICE) BILL, 2023

Previous year UPSC Prelims Question Covering similar theme:

📍With reference to the Constitution of India, prohibitions or limitations or provisions contained in ordinary laws cannot act as prohibitions or limitations on the constitutional powers under Article 142. It could mean which one of the following? (UPSC GS1, 2019)(a) The decisions taken by the Election Commission of India while discharging its duties cannot be challenged in any court of law.(b) The Supreme Court of India is not constrained in the exercise of its powers by laws made by the Parliament.(c) In the event of a grave financial crisis in the country, the President of India can declare a Financial Emergency without the counsel from the Cabinet.(d) State Legislatures cannot make laws on certain matters without the concurrence of the Union Legislature.📍Consider the following statements (UPSC GS1, 2017)1. The Election Commission of India is a five-member body.2. The Union Ministry of Home Affairs decides the election schedule for the conduct of both general elections and bye-elections.3. Election Commission resolves the disputes relating to splits/mergers of recognised political parties.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?(a) 1 and 2 only(b) 2 only(c) 2 and 3 only(d) 3 onlyPrevious year UPSC Mains Question Covering similar theme:📍In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India? (UPSC GS2, 2018)

GOVT & POLITICS

‘Hindi will become medium to empower local languages’

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Union Home Minister Amit Shah on Thursday said Hindi unites the diversity of languages in India and it has honoured different Indian as well as global languages and dialects. In a message on the occasion of Hindi Diwas, Shah also said Hindi has never competed nor will compete with any other Indian language and that a strong country will emerge only by strengthening all its languages.

• What is the significance of Hindi Diwas?

• How widely is Hindi spoken in India?

• Why the Constituent Assembly of India accepted Hindi, as the official language of India on September 14, 1949?

• Do You Know-The 2011 linguistic census accounts for 121 mother tongues, including 22 languages listed in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution. Hindi is the most widely spoken, with 52.8 crore individuals, or 43.6% of the population, declaring it as their mother tongue. The next highest is Bengali, mother tongue for 9.7 crores (8%) — less than one-fifth of Hindi’s count.In terms of the number of people who know Hindi, the count crosses more than half the country. Nearly 13.9 crore (over 11%) reported Hindi as their second language, which makes it either the mother tongue or second language for nearly 55% of the population.Hindi has been India’s predominant mother tongue over the decades, its share in the population rising in every succeeding census.In 1971, 37% Indians had reported Hindi as their mother tongue, a share that has grown over the next four censuses to 38.7%, 39.2%, 41% and 43.6% at last count.Between 1971 and 2011, the number of individuals who declared their mother tongue as Hindi multiplied 2.6 times, from 20.2 crore to 52.8 crore. The numbers more than doubled for Punjabi, Maithili, Bengali, Gujarati, and Kannada, and almost doubled for Marathi.

• Post-1947 debate over Hindi-Know in detail

• For Your Information-Hindi is the most widely spoken, with 52.8 crore individuals, or 43.6% of the population, declaring it as their mother tongue. The next highest is Bengali, mother tongue for 9.7 crores (8%) — less than one-fifth of Hindi’s count. In terms of the number of people who know Hindi, the count crosses more than half the country. Nearly 13.9 crore (over 11%) reported Hindi as their second language, which makes it either the mother tongue or second language for nearly 55% of the population.

• What are the concerns around the Hindi language and its impact on identity?

• What Indian constitution says about languages?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Hindi Diwas, and the history of the debate over Hindi’s status

📍Explained: 70 years ago, here’s how the Constituent Assembly debated status of Hindi

THE EDITORIAL PAGE

Invent in India

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-Rajeev Mantri, Gautam R Desiraju writes: Bharat is now the world’s fifth largest economy and will make it to the third spot soon, but it lags behind on most benchmarks concerning innovation, science and technology. One of the main reasons for this deficit has been Indian academia and industry failing to ramp up its contribution to the national R&D effort. Manufacturing in key sectors has been hobbled by straitjackets in fundamental factor markets of land, labour and capital, as well as faulty trade policies.

• What is Make in-India Programme?

• Can you name some prominent schemes by the Government of India in Make in India programme category?

• What is National Research Foundation?

• What is the aim of National Research Foundation?

• What is the purpose of National research Foundation?

• How much does India barely spend on research and development?

• Do You Know-India barely spends 0.7 per cent of its GDP on research and development, which is extremely low compared to many other countries. In fact, the gross expenditure on R&D declined from 0.84 per cent in 2008 to about 0.69 per cent in 2018, the last year for which confirmed figures are available. In comparison, the US spent 2.83 per cent, China spent 2.14 per cent, and Israel spent 4.9 per cent. Even Brazil, Malaysia and Egypt spend more of their GDP on research. The proposal for an NRF was first floated in the public domain by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on January 3, 2019 during his address to the Indian Science Congress. The NRF found a second mention on January 20 that year during a joint session of Parliament, and then later in the Finance Minister’s speech during the Budget Session in July 2019. The creation of NRF was also one of the key recommendations of the National Education Policy 2020.

• The administrative department of the NRF will be managed by whom?

• The governance of NRF will be formulated by a Governing Board, presided by whom?

• The principal reason to form the NRF is what?

• What is Prime Minister’s Science Technology and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC)?

• What are the loopholes in National Research Foundation?

• For Your Information- The NRF is also expected to promote democratisation of science funding and, funding to find scientific solutions to some big problems facing our society. These are welcome moves. However, it is important to ensure that basic research and small-scale research proposals are not brushed aside. Modalities of seeding, nurturing and promoting research by providing funds to less-endowed institutions and also monitoring outcomes should be transparent. A significant problem that the scientists have been facing is that proposed scientific projects are reviewed and sanctioned, but fund-release is often choppy. And, it has been choppy for many years. Projects that are sanctioned for funding for three years often do not receive the third year’s funds. The reasons underlying choppy fund-release must be thoroughly investigated and correctional steps must be implemented. Else, the delivery promises made in a project proposal will often remain undelivered, and the NRF will not be impactful on the science landscape of our country.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Cabinet approves Introduction of National Research Foundation Bill, 2023 in Parliament to strengthen research eco-system in the country

📍What is National Research Foundation?

THE IDEAS PAGE

Striking a green balance

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story-As India develops its economy to meet the growing needs of its people, the country will confront serious challenges due to climate change consequences and the allied necessity to curb carbon emissions. With the impact of global warming becoming more severe, there is immense urgency to embrace practices that mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

• What is carbon trading platform?

• “A vibrant carbon trading network is among the numerous solutions that are being adopted or considered to tackle the climate change emergency”-Comment

• How does carbon trading works?

• Is there carbon trading in India?

• What Are Carbon Credits?

• How Carbon credits can assist companies in meeting sustainability targets?

• What is Draft Carbon Credit Trading Scheme?

• Carbon Trading and Carbon Credit-compare and contrast

• Difference between ‘Net Zero’ and ‘Carbon Neutral’?

• What is India’s New Renewables Energy Target?

• How can net zero be achieved?

• Public-Private partnership frameworks to achieve ‘net zero’-issues and challenges

• India’s emission Status-Present Scenario

• What is Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM)?

• “The European Union has also proposed a Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) to tax carbon-intensive products, such as iron and steel, cement, fertiliser, aluminium and electricity generation, from 2026”-How this move will impact India?

• Do You Know-Under the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) system, EU importers will buy carbon certificates corresponding to the carbon price that would have been paid, had the goods been produced under the EU’s carbon pricing rules. Many developing countries including India are expected to challenge this levy.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Carbon Credits and How They Can Offset Your Carbon Footprint

Previous year UPSC Mains Question Covering similar theme:

📍Should the pursuit of carbon credits and clean development mechanisms set up under UNFCCC be maintained even though there has been a massive slide in the value of a carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth. (UPSC GS3, 2014)

EXPLAINED

Why Saudi Arabia matters

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s Interest

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- In his book MBS: The Rise to Power of Mohammed bin Salman, journalist Ben Hubbard described the Saudi Crown Prince as “one of the most dynamic and scrutinised leaders in the world…, praised by supporters as a…game-changer and dismissed by foes as a brutal dictator in the making…”. Prince Mohammed visited New Delhi over the weekend for the G20 Leaders’ Summit, where he, along with Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Joe Biden, announced the India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor, a massive infrastructure project that would connect India to Europe via West Asia, and could rival China’s Belt and Road Initiative.

• Why is Saudi Arabia significant to India-Know the bilateral relations between both the countries

• For Your Information-Saudi Arabia is India’s fourth-largest trading partner. More than 18 per cent of India’s crude oil imports are sourced from Saudi Arabia. During FY22 (April-December), bilateral trade was valued at $29.28 billion. During this period, India’s imports from Saudi Arabia were valued at $22.65 billion and exports to Saudi Arabia were worth $6.63 billion. The 2.2-million-strong Indian community is the largest expatriate community in Saudi Arabia, according to the Indian embassy.

• What is India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC)?

• Map Work-Saudi Arabia

• What is the Economic Significance of the Saudi Arabia for India?

• India and the Saudi Arabia diplomatic relations established when?

• Do You Know-Prime Minister Modi described Saudi Arabia as one of India’s most important strategic partners. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1947, and Indian government officials say they have always enjoyed cordial and friendly relations that reflect their socio-cultural and economic ties going back centuries.The visit of King Abdullah to India in January 2006 was a watershed moment in the relationship. The royal visit resulted in the signing of the Delhi Declaration, which was followed in 2010 by the Riyadh Declaration that elevated bilateral ties to a strategic partnership.Prime Minister Modi’s visit to Riyadh in April 2016 captured the spirit of enhanced cooperation in the political, economic, security, and defence realms. King Salman conferred on the Prime Minister the kingdom’s highest civilian honour, the King Abdulaziz Sash, indicating the importance Saudi Arabia attached to its relationship with India.The visit of Crown Prince Mohammed to India in February 2019 took this momentum further. It was announced that the kingdom would invest approximately $100 billion in India, and six MoUs/ Agreements were signed in a range of fields. An agreement was also signed to pave the way for Saudi Arabia to join the International Solar Alliance (ISA) launched by the Prime Minister.Modi visited Riyadh again in October 2019. The Strategic Partnership Council (SPC) Agreement was signed during the visit, which established a high-level council to steer the Indo-Saudi relationship. The SPC now has separate subcommittees on Political, Security, Social and Cultural Cooperation, and on Economy and Investments. Twelve pacts were signed during the PM’s visit.

• What are the areas of cooperation between the two nations?

• What is India’s Look West policy?

• What is the Strategic Partnership Council Agreement between India and Saudi Arabia?

• Gulf Cooperation Council and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)-compare and contrast

• Gulf Cooperation Council, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and India-Connect the dot

• Is India Member of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation?

• What is the Status of India’s relationship with Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)?

• Why is the Gulf and Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) important for India?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Explained: Why Saudi Arabia matters to India

FRANCE BANS SALE OF iPHONE12: WHY THE MOVE, ITS IMPLICATIONS

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests

Key Points to Ponder:

• What’s the ongoing story- France’s radiation watchdog has banned sales of Apple’s iPhone 12 after tests that it said showed the smartphone breached European radiation exposure limits.

The Agence Nationale des Frequences (ANFR) said on Tuesday the model’s Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) – a measure of the rate of radiofrequency energy absorbed by the body from a piece of equipment – was higher than legally allowed.Jean-Noel Barrot, France’s junior minister for the digital economy, told newspaper Le Parisien a software update could fix the problem. If Apple does not resolve the issue, the ANFR said it would order a recall of the device across France. Apple disputes the watchdog’s conclusions, saying the iPhone 12 was certified by multiple international bodies as compliant with global radiation standards.

• What is Standard Absorption Rate (SAR)?

• Do You Know-“Standard Absorption Rate” refers to the dose of energy that the body absorbs from any source of radiation. It is expressed as watts per kilogram of body weight.The radiation from mobile phones is a result of the way they work, by transmitting radiofrequency waves, creating electromagnetic fields. Unlike the radiation from X-rays or gamma rays – caused by radioactive decay – phones cannot break chemical bonds or cause changes to cells in the human body, a process which can ultimately cause harm like cancer.

• What has ANFR found?

• How dangerous is it?

• How has Apple responded?

• Are there more bans to come?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Dutch watchdog seeks Apple explanation on French iPhone 12 radiation tests, media report

India can now issue OIML certificates, the 13th country with this authority. Here is what that means, and its significance

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

Key Points to Ponder:

Most Read 1Chandrayaan-3 mission: Dawn breaks on Moon, all eyes on lander, rover to wake up 2As Indo-Canadian relations sour, anxiety grips Indian students, residents who wish to settle in Canada 3Karan Johar says Sanjay Leela Bhansali did not call him after Rocky Aur Rani: ‘He’s never called me but…’ 4Gadar 2 box office collection day 40: Hit by Shah Rukh Khan’s Jawan onslaught, Sunny Deol movie ends BO run with Rs 45 lakh earning 5Shubh’s tour in India cancelled: Why is the Canada-based singer facing the music?

• What’s the ongoing story– India has become an OIML certificate-issuing authority, the Union Consumer Affairs Secretary Rohit Kumar Singh said Thursday. Addressing a press conference, Singh said that the Legal Metrology Division, Department of Consumer Affairs, is now authorised to issue OIML certificates.

• What is the OIML?

• What is legal metrology?

• When did India become a member of the OIML?

• What is the OIML certificate?

• When did India apply to become an issuing authority?

• How will this help the Indian economy?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Welcome to the OIML website

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