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UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice | GS 2 (Week 16)

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UPSC Essentials brings to you its initiative for the practice of Mains answer writing. Mains Answer Writing covers essential topics of static and dynamic parts of the UPSC Civil Services syllabus covered under various GS papers. This answer-writing practice is designed to help you as a value addition to your UPSC CSE Mains. Attempt today’s answer writing on questions related to topics of GS-2 to check your progress.

QUESTION 1

Discuss how the Partnership for Global Infrastructure Investment (PGII) will aid in countering China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

QUESTION 2

Sickle cell disease is a serious health challenge in India’s tribal population. Discuss how we can resolve the tribal health challenge and highlight some of the government’s efforts in this direction.

General points on the structure of the answers

Introduction

— The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction.

— It may consist of basic information by giving some definitions from the trusted source and authentic facts.

Body

— It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content.

— The answer must be preferably written as a mix of points and short paragraphs rather than using long paragraphs or just points.

— Using facts from authentic government sources makes your answer more comprehensive. Analysis is important based on the demand of the question, but do not over analyse.

— Underlining keywords gives you an edge over other candidates and enhances presentation of the answer.

— Using flowcharts/tree-diagram in the answers saves much time and boosts your score. However, it should be used logically and only where it is required.

Way forward/ Conclusion

— The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach. However, if you feel that an important problem must be highlighted, you may add it in your conclusion. Try not to repeat any point from body or introduction.

— You may use the findings of reports or surveys conducted at national and international levels, quotes etc. in your answers.

Self Evaluation

— It is the most important part of our Mains answer writing practice. UPSC Essentials will provide some guiding points or ideas as a thought process that will help you to evaluate your answers.

THOUGHT PROCESS

You may enrich your answers by some of the following points

QUESTION 1: Discuss how the Partnership for Global Infrastructure Investment (PGII) will aid in countering China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

Introduction:

A simple introduction to this answer can revolve around a general statement about PGII.

— Partnership for Global Infrastructure Investment (PGII) is a developmental initiative aimed at narrowing the infrastructure gap in developing countries as well as help towards accelerating progress on SDGs globally.

— A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between the Governments of India, the US, Saudi Arabia, the European Union, the UAE, France, Germany and Italy to establish the India – Middle East – Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC).

— The India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC) comprises an Eastern Corridor connecting India to the Gulf region and a Northern Corridor connecting the Gulf region to Europe. It will include a railway and ship-rail transit network and road transport routes.

— It is being envisioned as a network of transport corridors, including railway lines and sea lanes, that is expected to aid economic growth through integration between Asia, the Arabian Gulf, and Europe.

(Source: India-Europe Economic Corridor: What is the Partnership for Global Infrastructure Investment that is behind the project? by Rishika Singh)

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

— The project is a part of the Partnership for Global Infrastructure Investment (PGII) — a West-led initiative for funding infrastructure projects across the world.

— It is seen that the PGII will act as a counter to China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). According to Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, it can contribute towards reducing the infrastructure gaps in the Global South countries.

— PGII was launched during the G7 summit in Germany, in 2022. It was launched to help fund infrastructure projects in developing countries through public and private investments.

What is the project?

— IMEC is a rail and shipping corridor that is part of the Partnership for Global Infrastructure Investment (PGII) — a collaborative effort by G7 nations to fund infrastructure projects in developing nations. PGII is considered to be the bloc’s counter to China’s Belt and Road Initiative.

— The project will aim to enable greater trade among the involved countries, including energy products.

— According to a document prepared by the European Commission, the corridor will include a rail link as well as an electricity cable, a hydrogen pipeline and a high-speed data cable.

Why is the project being proposed?

— It would increase prosperity among the countries involved through an increased flow of energy and digital communications.

— The project would help deal with the lack of infrastructure needed for growth in lower- and middle-income nations.

— It could help “turn the temperature down” on “turbulence and insecurity” coming out of the Middle East.

(Sources: India-Middle East-Europe mega economic corridor: What is the project and why is it being proposed?)

Conclusion:

Your conclusion should be short. You may include:

— For India, this new connectivity architecture could result in an alternative trans-regional commercial transportation route, joining forces in petrochemicals manufacturing by integrating India’s hydrocarbon value chain and creating an innovation corridor for green energy and innovative technology manufacturing value chains, Tanchum had noted in his paper titled ‘India’s Arab-Mediterranean Corridor: A Paradigm Shift in Strategic Connectivity to Europe’.

— In his remarks, Prime Minister highlighted the importance of physical, digital and financial connectivity. He said that IMEC would help promote economic integration between India and Europe.

(Sources: mea.gov.in, Data to oil, gas to goods: What is the announced sea-rail corridor from India to Europe? by Anil Sasi)

Points to Ponder

Border and Road Initiative

CPEC

Route of IMEC (countries involved)

Related Previous Year Questions

Clean energy is the order of the day.’ Describe briefly India’s changing policy towards climate change in various international fora in the context of geopolitics. (2022)

The new tri-nation partnership AUKUS is aimed at countering China’s ambitions in the Indo-Pacific region. Is it going to supersede the existing partnerships in the region? Discuss the strength and impact of AUKUS in the present scenario. (2021)

QUESTION 2: Sickle cell disease is a serious health challenge in India’s tribal population. Discuss how we can resolve the tribal health challenge and highlight some of the government’s efforts in this direction.

Introduction:

A simple introduction to this answer can revolve around a general statement about sickle cell and status of tribals in India.

— The Indian Constitution recognises the special status of tribal communities and provides them with specific safeguards, which are provided through different political-administrative structures established by Schedules V and VI of the Constitution.

— In India, the tribal habitations are scattered across large areas with poor access to basic health necessities. Therefore, it is observed that tribal people have remained marginal, with poor health and a poor population-provider ratio.

Sickle Cell Anaemia

— Sickle cell disease is a serious health challenge in India’s tribal population. It is a genetic disorder in which a person’s red blood cells become distorted and take on a sickle-like shape.

— Sickle cell disease is commonly found among tribal communities and poses a significant threat to the future and existence of our indigenous populations, and it is imperative to prevent the spread of this disease in a timely manner.

— Sickle cell disease exists in two forms within the human body:

(i) The individual does not exhibit any disease or symptoms and lives a normal life.

(ii) It is characterised by the presence of symptoms related to sickle cell disease.

— A person suffering from Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) faces numerous health problems, including persistent pain, fatigue, and anaemia, which significantly impact their quality of life.

(Source: Eradicating sickle cell disease, securing the future of India’s tribal communities by Mansukh Mandaviya, nhsrcindia.org)

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

Resolving Tribal Health Challenge

— The tribal communities must be empowered in a strategic way, keeping in mind their traditions and other intangible heritage touchpoints.

— The health of communities is influenced by various factors such as lack of infrastructure, medical professionals, connectivity, affordability, equipment, insurance, funding, and much more.

— Efforts are being made to eliminate Sickle Cell Anaemia through two approaches:

(i) It focuses on prevention, ensuring that new cases are not born.

(ii) It involves managing the treatment and providing adequate healthcare facilities for individuals already affected by the disease.

— The National Health Mission (NHM) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme that aims to provide universal access to equitable, accessible, and high-quality healthcare services that are responsible and responsive to people’s needs.

Government’s Efforts

Ayushman Bharat- Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs) are set up to provide twelve packages of Comprehensive Primary Health Care (CPHC), which comprise preventative, promotive, curative, palliative, and rehabilitative treatments that are universal, free, and accessible to the population.

— States/UTs have been granted freedom under NHM to deploy Mobile Medical Units (MMUs) to deliver a variety of health care services to the public, particularly those living in rural, inaccessible, un-served, and under-served regions.

National Free Drugs Service Initiative and National Free Diagnostic Service Initiative: According to the necessary medication lists for separate levels of facilities, medicines are given in suitable quantities to all health facilities, including those in vulnerable regions.

— The Government of India is assisting states in implementing National Ambulance Services (NHM) for free transportation of sick people to health facilities.

— All tribal majority districts whose composite health index is below the State average have been identified as High Priority Districts (HPDs).

(Sources: Eradicating sickle cell disease, securing the future of India’s tribal communities by Mansukh Mandaviya, India@75, Looking at 100: How we can resolve the tribal health challenge by Swati Piramal, pib.gov.in)

Conclusion:

Your conclusion should be short. You may include:

— According to the Census of India 2011, Scheduled Tribes Population numbers 104 million and constitutes 8.6 per cent of the country’s total population.

— At present, there are 705 different Scheduled Tribes in the country. Almost 90 per cent of the tribal population lives in rural areas. There are 169 districts in which the ST population constitutes more than 20 per cent of the population, and 809 blocks where the ST population is more than 50 per cent.

— As India moves towards its centenary, the responsibility of providing healthcare, a fundamental human right, for all our fellow citizens, lies both with private and government institutions. Through inclusive leadership and investments in healthcare infrastructure in tribal areas, we can empower our tribal communities, achieve sustainable development, and fulfil the United Nations SDGs. Let us pledge to ensure no one is left behind as the country moves towards India@100.

(Source: India@75, Looking at 100: How we can resolve the tribal health challenge by Swati Piramal, nhsrcindia.org)

Points to Ponder

What are PVTGs?

Schemes for tribals in Education

National Commission for Scheduled Tribes

Related Previous Year Questions

“Besides being a moral imperative of a Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary precondition for sustainable development.” Analyse. (2021)

In order to enhance the prospects of social development, sound and adequate health care policies are needed particularly in the fields of geriatric and maternal health care. Discuss. (2020)

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Previous Mains Answer Practice

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 1 (Week 14)

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UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 2 (Week 15)

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 2 (Week 14)

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 3 (Week 15)

UPSC Essentials: Mains answer practice — GS 3 (Week 14)

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